Emergency Preparedness Plans

The official logo for National Preparedness Month 2017. [High Resolution JPG]
(Photo Credit: Department of Homeland Security)

Sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Department of Homeland Security, National Preparedness Month is observed annually during the month of September. The initiative aims to drive education and awareness surrounding disaster preparation and to encourage citizens to take steps that will prepare them for disasters at home, work, school, or while away. Knowing what to do in the event of an emergency can save time and lives.

Know What To Plan For:

While certain types of emergencies, such as fires, thunderstorms, heat waves, and power outages can occur just about everywhere, your preparedness plan should be tailored to the types of disasters specific to your geographic location. For example, people living in areas where hurricanes or flooding are common will have a different evacuation or preparedness plan than people who live inland. Businesses along active fault lines should be retrofitted for earthquake protection and be prepared to suspend operations for extended periods of time if an earthquake takes place. And those living near nuclear power plants should be aware of what to do in case an emergency alert is activated.

Make A Plan:

A comprehensive emergency preparedness plan will incorporate a list of important info (contact, medical, etc.) for family members or coworkers and contact info for various people/places such as hospitals, doctors, schools, or caretakers. The plan will outline things such as evacuation protocol, where to find emergency supplies and equipment, and disaster specific info (how to prepare a home for a hurricane, where to shelter for a tornado, the location of life jackets, etc.). Keep adequate supplies, emergency and medical equipment, and cash on hand.  An outline on how to create an emergency plan can be viewed here.

Consider Backups:

Your plan should include contingencies for what may arise based on the type of emergency. For example, during a power outage, you may not be able to receive alerts on TV or your cell phone. Gas, water, or food shortages may happen during events such as a mass evacuation. Make alternative evacuation routes in case of traffic, blocked roads, or flooding. Around the home or office, it’s important to know where every fire extinguisher, AED, first aid kit, and emergency exit may be in case access to the nearest one is blocked. Think of the potential issues that may arise for each type of emergency.

Communicate The Plan:

Whether it’s for home, work, or elsewhere, a disaster plan is only effective if everyone who may be involved is informed. At home, this will include all members of the household as well as a babysitter, neighbor, or a nearby relative who may be an emergency contact. Include emergency contacts out of town as well, if an evacuation is ordered. Having all members of the plan informed of what to do helps save time and avoid confusion in times of panic and dangerous conditions.

Run Practice Drills:

Once everyone understands their role in the emergency plan, the next step is to practice and test the plan. Simulating a real emergency, such as an incoming hurricane, will help members of the plan become more familiar with their responsibilities and identify any potential issues or conflicts. Run practice drills for each type of major emergency that you can expect in your area.

Review The Results:

After running your practice emergency drill, review the results with your team. Identify any bottlenecks, shortcomings, and/or vulnerabilities (single points of failure) that the plan may present and come up with solutions to these issues. If needed, rerun the drills and reassess the results, keeping in mind that the conditions present during the practice drill will probably be different during a real emergency.

To learn more about creating your own emergency preparedness plan, visit the Department of Homeland Security’s Ready.gov website.

Fire Extinguisher Safety

fire extinguisher safety
(Photo Credit: Jared Bartlett)

When they are used correctly, fire extinguishers can save both lives and property, but many adults do not know how to properly use one. It is important to know how fire extinguishers work, how to use them, how to identify which type to use, and how to maintain them before a fire takes place.

Before Using an Extinguisher

While it is necessary to act quickly in the event of a fire, education also goes a long way in fighting hostile fires. Knowing what to do in an emergency before it happens will help make firefighting quicker and safer:

  • Pull the alarm – If you see a fire, always activate the fire alarm to alert both the occupants of the building as well as the fire department (call 9-1-1 if your alarm system doesn’t do this automatically).
  • Plan an escape route – if you plan on fighting the fire, know how to leave the area quickly in case the fire gets out of control. Only fight the fire if you have a clear escape route.
  • Know how to use the extinguisher – take time to learn how to properly aim, sweep, and extinguish a fire; many offices and companies have annual employee safety trainings which include fire extinguisher exercises.
  • Assess the size of the fire – fire extinguishers are only meant to put out small, single-location fires; never attempt to put out a large conflagration with a handheld extinguisher.
  • Determine the fuel source – it is important to know what kind of fire is burning before you use an extinguisher – using the incorrect extinguisher can be extremely dangerous – by spreading the fire or causing flare ups. For example, using a water-based extinguisher can spread an oil fire or electrocute a user fighting an electrical fire, and Carbon Dioxide extinguishers can actually fuel certain types of fires.

Types of Extinguishers

A fire’s fuel source will determine what type of fire extinguisher needs to be used to extinguish it. In the United States, there are five classes of fires as defined by the National Fire Protection Association:

  • Class A – Common combustibles such as wood, paper, most plastics, rubber, and fabric. Symbols: Triangle with letter A and picture of burning wood/trash can.
  • Class B – Flammable liquid such as gasoline, oil, paint, and kerosene. Symbols: Square with letter B and picture of burning gasoline jerry can.
  • Class C – Electrical fires and electrical equipment. Symbols: Circle with letter C and picture of burning electrical plug and socket.
  • Class D – Combustible metals such as lithium batteries, sodium, magnesium, and potassium. Symbol: Five-Pointed Star with letter D and picture of burning machine gears.
  • Class K – Cooking oils and fats such as vegetable oils, margarine, butter, animal fats, and grease. Symbol: Hexagon with letter K and picture of pan/pot on fire.

Each class is marked on an extinguisher by both a letter (class letter), and a symbol. Most homes and offices contain multi-purpose “ABC” extinguishers which can be used for those three classes of fire. The contents of fire extinguishers vary depending on the class of fire being put out. Some materials can put out multiple classes of fire, while others are used for only a specific class. These include dry chemicals, foams, Carbon Dioxide, halon gases, compressed water, and pressurized metal based powders. It is important to know what is in your building’s extinguishers so they do not cause more damage than necessary (especially when used around electronic equipment). It is also important you never use the incorrect class of extinguisher as it may exacerbate the fire.

Using an Extinguisher

When using an extinguisher, remember the acronym “PASS”, which stands for, Pull, Aim, Squeeze, and Sweep. Stand between 6 to 8 feet away from the fire and:

  • Pull the safety pin to release the trigger.
  • Aim at the base of the fire (where the fuel source is).
  • Squeeze the trigger continuously until the spraying stops.
  • Sweep from side to side until the fire extinguisher is empty.

An average size fire extinguisher dispenses its contents within 8 to 10 seconds – if the fire does not disappear, leave the area immediately.

Proper Maintenance

Fire extinguishers need to be routinely checked for adequate pressure and cleanliness.

  • Make sure there is no visible rust or dents on the extinguisher and the handle/trigger are clean and free of dust and debris.
  • Fire extinguishers should always be kept in easy to reach, clearly visible (and marked with signage), unobstructed places, evenly distributed among floor plans and throughout multiple floors of a building. Keep in mind the typical hazards located around the building – keep Class K extinguishers near the kitchen, Class C extinguishers near the computer room/server room, and class A extinguishers near the dumpster.
  • Depending on the type of chemical/gas used, the fire extinguisher will need to undergo hydrostatic pressure testing by a professional on a varying schedule: between 5 years for wet contents, CO2, & foams, and up to 12 for halon gases, dry powders, and dry chemicals.
  • Extinguishers exposed to elements such as vibrations, extreme heat or cold, or ones stored on vehicles should be inspected/tested more frequently.
  • Regular maintenance such as visual inspections, cleanings, and pressure checks should be done every month.
  • In areas with many kids and teenagers, fire extinguishers should be kept in protected cabinets (where glass must be broken or an alarm sounds if opened) to deter vandalism.

While fire extinguishers can be the first line of defense against a fire, they have their limitations. Never use a fire extinguisher without training and only use it to combat small fires. Handheld extinguishers are ineffective against conflagrations, so the best course of action when confronted with a large fire is to leave the area immediately and wait for the fire department from a safe distance. Most importantly, always activate the fire alarm and if for any reason you cannot fight the fire, leave the area at once; you can replace property, but you can’t replace lives.

“Choosing and using fire extinguishers.” U.S. Fire Administration, FEMA, 29 Dec. 2016, www.usfa.fema.gov/prevention/outreach/extinguishers.html. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017.

Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls at Work

preventing slips, trips, and falls
(Photo Credit: Fotolia)

Slips, trips, and falls also known as STFs, are some of the leading causes of injury in the workplace. In the United States, nearly 50,000 people are injured and almost 600 more are killed in fall-related incidents at work. These injuries result in lost productivity, pain & suffering, lawsuits, and increase healthcare and insurance costs. To help reduce your risk of STFs on the job, follow these safety tips:

Inside the Workplace:

  • Keep hallways and corridors clear of obstacles and clutter
  • Never place any objects in front of emergency exits, especially furniture
  • Install handrails on both sides of all stairwells
  • Keep cords, wiring, and cables clear of walkways
  • Perform routine inspections to identify any dangerous conditions, repair any hazards immediately, and record the details of any incidents that take place
  • Place wet floor signs on wet surfaces (entryways after snowstorms, freshly mopped floors, spill areas, etc.)
  • Remove debris and objects such as loose papers, books, boxes, etc. from floors, walkways, and stairs
  • Use non-skid rubber mats to keep rugs from slipping
  • Do not place furniture within walking routes
  • Use child safety gates at the tops and bottoms of staircases to prevent children from falling down the stairs

Ladders:

  • Only use ladders on a solid, dry, and even surface
  • Always face the ladder when climbing up or down
  • Maintain three points of contact at all times (e.g.: Two feet, one hand/one foot, two hands)
  • Never lean or over reach over the sides of the ladder – reposition the ladder if necessary
  • Use tool belts – do not climb with tools in hand
  • Do not use ladders outside in windy or rainy conditions
  • Do not use chairs, tables, cabinets, etc. as ladders
  • Keep in mind the weight limit and use duty for each ladder

Outdoor Spaces:

  • Repair cracked or split walking surfaces immediately
  • Make sure parking lots, walkways, and doorways are adequately lit
  • Point downspouts away from walking surfaces
  • Keep walkways/driveways/parking lots clear of snow and ice
  • Clearly mark steps, gaps, ledges, and other hazards
  • Ensure all steps have handrails, and all ledges have railings

Taking these steps can help reduce or prevent slips, trips, and falls from occurring at your workplace and reduce the chances of injuries and costly lawsuits.

“Slips, Trips and Falls.” National Safety Council. National Safety Council, 2016. Web. 27 Feb. 2017. http://www.nsc.org/NSCDocuments_Advocacy/Fact%20Sheets/Slips-Trips-and-Falls.pdf.